Flux Quantization in Type II Superconductors
Gene McClellan -- Applied Research Associates, Inc.
This presentation explores the physics of magnetic and electric flux tubes supported by current vortices in condensed matter having a superconducting state in which bosonic charge carriers flow without resistance. The starting point is that the boson wave function satisfies the Klein-Gordon equation of relativistic quantum mechanics. Next, the electromagnetic fields within the superconducting medium are assumed to obey the quasistatic Maxwell equations expressed with geometric algebra and calculus and incorporating either electric or hypothetical magnetic currents. Finally, the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus is utilized in two forms to examine flux tubes, first in electric superconductors and then in hypothetical magnetic superconductors. Geometric algebra and calculus enable a consistent treatment of both analyses and their extension from three to four spatial dimensions.