1624 - 1631
1632 - 1634
1634 - 1640
1641 - 1650
1651 - 1659
1660 - 1669
The year 2006 saw many great Rembrandt exhibitions, in celebration of the artist's alleged
400th birthday. Being familiar with some of Rembrandt's more famous works in the major museums in
Amsterdam, Den Haag, London, Paris, and Saint Petersburg, I was completely blown away by the more
than excellent exhibition 'Rembrandt - Quest of a Genius' in the Rembrandthuis in Amsterdam.
The exhibition made me longing for more, so I wondered if I could find a complete overview of all
paintings by Rembrandt on the Internet.
How naïve I was...
In my quest for an overview of all Rembrandt paintings on the web I found that nothing like
that exists. Or actually, many overviews exist, but even the best ones are not even close
to being complete. Worse even, among experts there is no consensus at all on the attribution
of Rembrandt's works. One problem is that many autograph paintings have not been
signed by Rembrandt at all. Also, many works that bear a 'Rembrandt' signature (either
real or fake) may or may not have been painted (entirely, or in part) by the master himself.
This is due to standard workshop habits in Rembrandt's time, but also due to dubious commercial
practices in later centuries. Another problem is that many works have partially, or almost
completely, been overpainted, either by students in Rembrandt's workshop, in restoration
processes, or again for commercial reasons. Above all, the problem is that there is not a
single identifiable 'Rembrandt-style' that - beyond any doubt - separates works by the master
from those by his followers. As a result, serious attempts to authenticate Rembrandt paintings
often are driven by (implicit) personal standards of quality that experts are
willing to associate with Rembrandt. (For a great paper presenting insight in the complexities
in this area, see
"Truth in labeling" by Gary Schwartz, Art in America, Dec. 1995).
So, what to do now?
From the enormous pile of Rembrandt-overviews that exist, in printed form, and on the Internet,
two seem to be most authorative (albeit contested and controversial at times). First, there is
the 1935 catalogue by Abraham Bredius , which was revised and updated by
Horst Gerson in 1969 . The complete Bredius/Gerson list contains 630 works, of which
Gerson himself has accepted 420 as autograph . Next, there is the result of the more
scientific approach by the Rembrandt Research Project (RRP) [7,20,21]. The RRP has been researching
for close to 40 years now; a verdict has been passed on about half of all putative Rembrandt
paintings. Extrapolating on the current attributions (see also Statistics),
it seems that the RRP will have accepted around 340 works once the research is finally finished.
To make matters worse, five other 'modern' oeuvre catalogues, by Kurt Bauch in 1966 , Bolten &
Bolten-Rempt in 1978 , Gary Schwartz in 1984 , Christian Tümpel in 1986 , and
Leonard Slatkes in 1992 , incorporate 562, 575, 350, 265, and 315 autograph works respectively.
Irrespective of the impressive connoisseurship of the experts that have compiled these lists, one
inconvenient fact remains: even today many works continue to move back-and-forth between the lists of
'attributions' and 'rejections'.
Not a stable basis for a definite overview, is it?
Clearly, if one wants to have a 'complete overview of all Rembrandt paintings', it is essential to
keep disputed paintings somewhere on the list. Also, one should be very well aware that even works
with the strongest attributions may loose their 'status' later; the infamous de-attribution of the
Berlin "Man in a gold helmet" is just one example. Similarly, strongly rejected paintings may once
make a remarkable comeback (such as "The Mill" in Washington DC). In this respect, the overview of
Rembrandt paintings published by Paolo Lecaldano in 1969  is an interesting one. The Lecaldano
list indeed includes many disputed and rejected paintings, giving a grand total of 451 'oeuvre
paintings' plus an extra 206 'contested or formerly accepted paintings'. Importantly, all 630 works
on the Bredius/Gerson list also appear on the Lecaldano list, and all 420 works accepted by Gerson are
included in Lecaldano's 451 'oeuvre paintings'. Moreover, the 'oeuvre paintings' include important
works that were left out by Bredius and Gerson, such as "Tobit and Anna" (National Gallery, London)
and "Portrait of a man holding a hat" (Armand Hammer Collection, Los Angeles). For these reasons, it
is the Lecaldano list that has served as the most important basis for this 'Web Catalogue of Rembrandt
So, what is this 'Web Catalogue' then, really?
The initial goal of this Web Catalogue was to bring together all 657 Lecaldano paintings,
together with all works that have been discovered or re-attributed since the Lecaldano list was
first published in 1969. The representation was to be similar to that of Google's "Image Search"
results - so, each image was to be no larger than 150x150 pixels. In the process, all paintings
evaluated in the RRP Corpus in the period 1982-2005 have been included as well, together with
many works included in the catalogues published by the most authorative Rembrandt experts of the
late 1800s and early 1900s: Bode , Hofstede de Groot , and Valentiner [17,18].
Over 90% of the reproductions included in the Web Catalogue have been obtained from the Internet.
The remaining reproductions have been photographed by me from Valentiner's 1909 and 1921
catalogues (i.e. in black and white) - under the assumption that this is not a breach of any
The included works are grouped into 6 periods, each containing approximately the same number of paintings. In each
of these periods the works are categorized according to their current apparent status among Rembrandt experts
(see also Disclaimer):
Within each of these categories the works are ordered by the year in which they were produced. Placing the
mouse pointer over an image will show the painting's title, year, and location, together with the catalogue
numbers taken from 14 different oeuvre catalogues published in the last 100 years (see below). If available,
additional references to related literature are shown as well. Clicking generally gives a reproduction as
found somewhere on the Internet.
- Category I: Generally accepted as autograph,
- Category II: Disputed, doubted, or attributed without general support,
- Category III: Generally rejected and/or attributed to an artist other than Rembrandt.
How many paintings are included in the 'Web Catalogue'?
Currently, the Web Catalogue contains 253 Category I paintings, 119 Category II paintings, and 370 Category
III paintings - a combined total of 742 works. As such, the Web Catalogue covers all
works included in the oeuvre catalogues published by Bredius , Bauch , Gerson , Bredius/Gerson ,
Lecaldano , Bolten/Bolten-Rempt , Schwartz , Tümpel , and Slatkes , as well as all paintings
discussed in the published RRP Corpus [7,20]. It also covers many - but certainly not all - paintings included
in the more ancient catalogues published by Bode , Hofstede de Groot , and Valentiner [17,18]; the missing
ones may be added at a later stage. Finally, I have personally included two paintings, both of which have not
been part of the general Rembrandt literature: (1) "Mary Magdalene in meditation" (now attributed to Jan Lievens),
and (2) "Head of an oriental with a cap" (which has disappeared from the Rembrandt literature after it was
introduced by A. Bredius in 1924). I have decided to include these works, as it seems reasonable to consider both
for further investigation.
The Web Catalogue is not commercial; copyright and all rights therein are retained by the copyright holders.
Also, the catalogue is not intended to provide high-resolution reproductions. Instead it intends to present
the most complete Internet overview of the works by - or closely related to - one of the greatest painters
of all time. The Web Catalogue does not pretend to be authorative; I am not a Rembrandt expert, and I do not
have access to all the latest scientific results (see Disclaimer). Hence, the
Web Catalogue undoubtedly will contain some errors - but I have tried my best to be as complete and accurate
as possible. Finally, electronic and paper reproductions can never replace the actual paintings themselves - so
please take this Web Catalogue as an incentive to go and see 'the real thing'.
Complete Oeuvre Catalogues
Bauch, K., "Rembrandt Gemälde",
Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin 1966.
Bode, W. von, "Studien zur Geschichte der holländischen Malerei",
Bode, W. von, Hofstede de Groot, C., "Rembrandt: beschreibendes Verzeichnis - Gemälde mit den
heliographischen Nachbildungen", Paris 1897-1905.
Bolten, J., H. Bolten-Rempt, "The Hidden Rembrandt",
Phaidon Press, Oxford 1978.
Bredius, A., "Rembrandt Schilderijen. 630 Afbeeldingen",
Uitgeversmaatschappij W. de Haan N.V., Utrecht 1935.
Bredius, A., "Rembrandt. The Complete Edition of the Paintings",
Revised by H. Gerson, Phaidon Press Ltd., London 1969.
Bruyn, J., et al., "A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings" (Vols. I, II, III),
Den Haag / Boston / London 1982 (I), 1986 (II), 1989 (III).
Dutuit, E., "Tableaux et dessins de Rembrandt. Catalogue historique et descriptif",
Supplément à: L'oeuvre complet de Rembrandt (Paris 1883), Paris 1885.
Gerson, H., "Rembrandt Paintings",
Hofstede de Groot, C., "Beschreibendes und kritisches Verzeichnis der Werke der hervorragendsten
holländischen Maler des XVII. Jahrhunderts" (Band VI), Paul Neff Verlag, Esslingen 1915.
(note: a version of this book - in English, edited by Edward G. Hawke, 1916 - is available
Lecaldano, P., "Tout l'Oeuvre Peint de Rembrandt" (introduction by F. Jacques),
Flammarion (coll. "Les classiques de l'art"), Paris 1971 (original in Italian, Milan 1969).
Rosenberg, J., "Rembrandt: Life and Work",
Phaidon Press, London 1964.
Schwartz, G., "Rembrandt. Zijn Leven, Zijn Schilderijen: een nieuwe Biografie",
Maarssen, Gary Schwartz, 1984.
Slatkes, L.J., "Rembrandt: Catalogo Completo dei Dipinti",
Cantini, Firenze 1992.
Smith, J., "A Catalogue Raissoné of the Works of the Most Eminent Dutch, Flemish and French Painters"
(Volume VII, Rembrandt van Rhyn; Volume IX, Supplement), London 1836/1842.
(note: the 1836 version of this book is available here;
the 1842 supplement here).
Tümpel, C., "Rembrandt",
H.J.W. Becht, Amsterdam 1986 (tweede verbeterde druk, Antwerpen 1993).
Valentiner, W.R., "Rembrandt: Des Meisters Gemälde in 643 Abbildungen",
Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart-Leipzig, 1909.
(note: an illustrated version - in English, with a foreword by Adolf Rosenberg, 1913 - is available
Valentiner, W.R., "Rembrandt: Wiedergefundene Gemälde (1910-1920) in 120 Abbildungen",
Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart-Berlin, 1921.
Vosmaer, C., "Rembrandt Harmens van Rijn, sa vie et ses oeuvre. Seconde édition, entièrement
refondue et augmentée", Den Haag-Paris, Martinus Nijhoff-Renouard, 1877 (first edition, 1868).
Wetering, E. van de, et al., "A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings IV: The Self-Portraits",
Wetering, E. van de, et al., "A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings V: Small Figured History Pieces",
Springer Verlag 2008
Additional Literature and Suggested Reading
Alexander-Knotter, M., J. Hillegers, E. van Voolen, "De 'Joodse' Rembrandt: De Mythe Ontrafeld",
Joods Historisch Museum, Amsterdam / Waanders Uitgevers, Zwolle 2006.
Blankert, A., "Rembrandt. A Genius and his Impact",
National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne / Art Exhibitions Australia Ltd., Sydney / Waanders Publishers, Zwolle 1997.
Bomford, D., J. Kirby, A. Roy, A. Rüger, R. White, "Art in the Making: Rembrandt",
National Gallery Company Ltd., London 2006.
Brown, C., J. Kelch, P. van Thiel, "Rembrandt: De Meester & zijn Werkplaats",
Rijksmuseum Amsterdam / Waanders Uitgevers, Zwolle 1991.
Chong, A., et al., "Rembrandt Creates Rembrandt: Art and Ambition in Leiden, 1629 - 1631",
Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston / Waanders Publishers, Zwolle 2000.
Haak, B., "Rembrandt. Zijn Leven, Zijn Werk, Zijn Tijd",
Schama, S., "De Ogen van Rembrandt",
Uitgeverij Contact, Amsterdam / Antwerpen 1999.
Schwartz, G., "De Grote Rembrandt",
Waanders Uitgevers, Zwolle 2006.
Straten, R. van, "Young Rembrandt. The Leiden Years, 1606-1632" (with I. Moerman),
Foleor Publishers, Leiden 2005.
Vogelaar, C., G. Korevaar, "Rembrandt's Mother: Myth and Reality",
Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden / Waanders Uitgevers, Zwolle 2005.
Vogelaar, C., G.J.M. Weber, "Rembrandts Landschappen",
Stedelijk Museum de Lakenhal, Leiden / Staatliche Museen Kassel / Waanders Uitgevers, Zwolle 2006.
Wetering, E. van de, "Rembrandt: The Painter at Work",
Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam 1997.
Wetering, E. van de, et al., "Rembrandt: Zoektocht van een Genie",
Museum Het Rembrandthuis, Amsterdam / Waanders Uitgevers, Zwolle 2006.
Wheelock, A.K., "Rembrandts Late Religieuze Portretten",
Waanders Uitgevers, Zwolle / National Gallery of Art, Washington 2006.
White, C., Q. Buvelot, "Rembrandt by Himself",
Mauritshuis, Den Haag / National Gallery, London / Waanders Uitgevers, Zwolle 1999.
Rembrandt: life, paintings, etchings, drawings & self portraits
Rembrandt Research Project
The official website of the Rembrandt 400 year
Anarkasis - Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn
Art Renewal Center - Rembrandt
Artcyclopedia - Rembrandt van Rijn
Artpx - Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn
Bildarchiv - Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn (German)
Columbia University, Media Center for Art History and Archaeology - Rembrandt
CFGA - Rembrandt
Ciudad de la pintura - Rembrandt (Spanish)
CopiArte - Rembrandt van Rijn
Die wichtigsten Rembrant-Museen (German)
Fine Art Prints on Demand - Rembrandt
Gallery 319: Rembrandt
Gemäldesammlung nach Themen der Lehrpläne (German)
InfoFineArt - Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn
Kings Galleries - Rembrandt van Rijn
MyArtPrints - Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn
OCAIW - Rembrandt van Rijn
Oceansbridge - Oil Paintings of Rembrandt
Oil Paint Shop - Rembrandt van Rijn
Olga's Gallery - Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn
Rembrandt: Autoportraits (French)
Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn (Bulgarian)
Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn (Russian)
Rembrandt van Rijn (Taiwanese)
Réunion des musées nationaux (French)
Scholars Resource - Rembrandt van Rijn
Web Gallery Of Art - Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn
Web Museum - Rembrandt
Wikimedia Commons - Rembrandt